Charles Robert Ashbee established the Guild of Handicraft in 1888. Influenced by Ruskin and Morris, he intended the Guild to be a co-operative venture which would encourage the full creative potential of the craftsman. At the turn of the century, the Guild was at the height of its success and had evolved a distinctive and mature style. Softly planished surfaces decorated with chasing and embossing were characteristic of Ashbee's designs and had a significant effect on contemporary silver in Europe and America as well as Britain. To this group also belonged MH Baillie Scott and Charles Rennie Mackintosh (principal figure of the Glasgow School). Financially however, the Guild was less successful and in 1908, Ashbee was forced to wind up its affairs.